As a basic biological science, microbiology is one of the important subjects to study the various aspects of different Microbes. The world flourishes with abundant number of Microbes including Viruses, Bacteria, and Fungi etc. Our most sophisticated understanding of the chemical and physical principles behind living processes has arisen from studies using microorganisms. This is in large part because microbial cells share many biochemical properties with cells of multi cellular organisms. And this, coupled with the fact that microbial cells can reach extremely high cell densities in culture and are readily amenable to genetic study, makes them excellent models for understanding cell function in plants and animals.
The Microbiology is an applied biological science, deals with many important practical problems in medicine, agriculture and industry. Some of the most important diseases of humans, animals and plants are caused by microorganisms. Microorganisms play major roles in soil fertility and animal production. Many large-scale industrial processes are microbial based, which has led to the development of a whole new discipline, biotechnology.